In this article, we will provide you with more information about the components that make the clock tick, and especially to transfer information from place to place - with a (really) close look at theGeForce RTX The magnificent 3080 GAMING X TRIO made by MSI
In the video card review we mainly discussed the performance of RTX 3080 with a variety of titles, and the impressive performance improvements it presents compared to the previous generation. This article is going to be used primarily for the purposes of learning and understanding the engineering behind such a product. Of course understanding the product engineering and knowing the printed circuit board there are different levels, from the simple person to the hardware engineers who build such boards. We will get to know some of the components that make a video card what it is in order to get to know the basics of anatomy that make the product functional.
This video card belongs to MSI's advanced series, known as TRIO, with the cheaper Ventus series underneath. Occasionally, MSI invests more research and engineering and launches a more advanced printed circuit board for Core A graphic called the Lightning series. These models can even take half a year since the launch of the first models to reach the market.
In designing this video card, MSI uses a back cover for the printed circuit board when only the graphics core back components are exposed. A plate that serves as a back protector becomes a regular thing in advanced video cards, since while the heat from the components of the printed circuit board is important, protecting those sensitive components from physical damage is just as important. The network has already seen video card protectors (can they be called that?) That prevent the death of a video card in protecting it from environmental damage, leakage of water from systems Cooling To the processor or even the entry of liquids from the roof of the case.
The same material MSI calls in "Graphene" marketing is actually a type of polycarbonate. This hardware has slightly improved heat conduction properties than other types of plastic found that we are used to seeing in products like Enclosures. Admittedly, this is not yet a heat-conducting aluminum. On the other hand, there are advantages over aluminum, with impact resistance, electrical insulation and the strength of the material in their head. In favor of heat conduction hot ingredients, poses MSI Thermal pads between the backs of the voltage and memory stabilizers to the same brace.
This is what the back of the video card looks like after disassembling the same backplate. There is not much interest in this part other than the various voltage controllers located on the left side of the card.
This is what the RTX 3080 GAMING X TRIO printed circuit board looks like in its nakedness. In the center of the video card is a graphics core along with 10 GDDR6X chips for those 10GB of זיכרון graphic. Both on the right side and on the left side of the core, there are power supply systems for the various core components as well as those for the graphics memory. First of all, let's start with the main artery.
Most of the power supply of the video card starts right here, in the main power connectors. This video card has three 8PIN connectors PCI-Express. Each such connector includes three pins for 12V and five GNDs or in the DC power world three for plus and five for minus. The accepted standard in the world of power supplies and video cards is that each such connector and each cable that connects to it includes 18AWG-thick tendons. The same American Wire Gauge standard operates according to the diameter of each cable and thus defines its electrical capacity. The biggest barrier to unlimited current transmission is the amount of heat emission that the same cable can handle. Technically, if transmitting current in the cable would not cause it to overheat, we would not need so many tendons in each power cord.
All about the generationAmpere The new NVIDIA:
- Dear King is Naked: ASUS GeForce RTX 3090 TUF graphics card under review
- Worth the wait: Gigabyte unveils future GeForce RTX 3000 models with a variety of memory volumes
- Asus GeForce RTX 3080 TUF OC graphics card in-depth review: a shining star
- MSI GeForce RTX 3080 GAMING X TRIO Video Card Review: Fine Engineering in Front of You
- The RTX 3080 is looking for a partner: Core i9 10850K head to head with the Ryzen 9 3900XT
- GeForce RTX 3080 Founders Edition: The reviews and performance are already here
- First models and prices for the GeForce RTX 3000 models are already here - in Israel and around the world
- All graphics card models in one place: MSI's GeForce RTX 3000
- All graphics card models in one place: GeForce RTX 3000 from ASUS
Each 18AWG tendon allotted for a 12V (plus) task on this video card is set to handle 10A of electric current, meaning a maximum power of 120W. Three strands of 12V plus in each connector means nine in total, and a maximum current capacity of 90A. Of course, the video card that needs such a high current has not yet been created, but this means that the system will remain cool in any situation, and that the current distribution will not fall on so-called hotspots, hot spots that are naturally forced to carry higher current and heat up. There is a triple defense here against what will not happen, and yes, MSI Requires the user to populate these three connectors, as the video card will not allow operation at all if only two are connected. It can be said that there is over-caution here at the expense of a slight compatibility challenge with power supplies. There is a component that detects a proper connection and allows the rest of the card to be turned on. If you will - insurance that the user has a really high power supply.
When the current enters through the main connector at a voltage of 12V from the power supply, it passes with the help of a voltage controller to stabilization and supply stages for the various components. The voltage controller is a component that splits a main frequency of a current into a certain amount of secondary current frequencies, and through a logical indication gives each split frequency its own channel:
The main capacitor At each stage it is filled while continuing to supply the current and performing noise filtering and electrical capacitance, here the voltage is still 12V.
Voltage stabilizer (Also called Voltage Regulator Module) contains components for reducing the voltage from the input to the output from it. The determined voltage is what determines the consumer, in this case the graphic core itself or זיכרון The GDDR6X. This component has the ability in real time to lower input voltage to output voltage within a certain range on both sides. The output voltage is pulled by the component as needed in real time. This produces heat In a significant amount, the voltage stabilizer component depends on the amount of current flowing through it. The difference between a quality and expensive voltage regulator and a cheap one comes in the form of dealing with a higher amount of current while producing a lower amount of heat, and a variety of monitoring and safety options such as switching off when there is excess current or high temperature. The voltage coming out of the stabilizer actually moves at a specific frequency when the average will be at the desired voltage.
Cast inspiration coil (Chuck) - from there receives the outgoing current in its new setting and specific frequency from the stabilizer, and its purpose is to take care of improving the stability of the current and making the average voltage relatively flat instead of wavy between the minimum and maximum. An internal coil exists within this component, and is protected by an insulating material for the benefit of static noise prevention and enhanced induction capability (same operation is described). Flat voltage and as stable a current as possible are key tools for the stability of an electrical component such as the graphics core.
Get last delivery Stands in the line of production of this current and is in fact the last electrical station of the current before reaching the consumer. Here a final noise filter is performed in order to provide as clean a current as possible. There are times when a manufacturer decides to place more than one gets at this point, which we see in many advanced motherboards and video cards.
This system has been fairly standard in video cards for many years, and the quantity of channels as well as the quality of the components varies depending on the power consumption of the components with first and foremost the graphics core itself. After all, it is the largest consumer of any video card.
We were familiar with the previous part of standard electric capacitors, whose two legs pass through the printed circuit board (Through Hole), but there are Electric capacitors of another type as well, And in this video card they are on the other side of the graphics core and memory. The capacitors in the center of the image are SMD (RT) capacitors Surface-Mount Diode), and are slightly more expensive per component, but their quality is higher. Due to the significantly higher contact area and other physical properties, a large and different frequency range can be covered than that of traditional Through Hole capacitors. On the other hand, using these capacitors slightly limits the signal length and signal quality (so-called Signal Integrity). Because we are close to the graphics core and memory components, the use of SMD components on the side of the printed circuit board is possible, unlike the other side which is significantly far away. Also, a relatively large supply of SMD capacitors can be placed in a small area as you see in the picture.
The system to the left of the graphic core is actually a duplication of most of the system you saw in the explanations above. Here SMD capacitors are used in both main capacitance and last capacitance before Core Graphics and GDDR6X memory.
The back of the printed circuit board also contains electrical capacitors of various types, mainly for cleaning and improving the current to it. We know that each manufacturer chooses to embed components in this area in a different way, and specifically in RTX 3080 We know this is a pretty hot topic lately.
The graphics core at the heart of this whole story, and the engine behind the heavy 102D calculations is NVIDIA's GAXNUMX. As we described In the video card review here, This graphics core continues to break production capacity records when 628 billion transistors are printed on an area of only 28.3 millimeters. This, does NVIDIA At Samsung's factory in the process of 8 nanometers. For this graphics core as embedded in the RTX 3080 there are 10 small controllers for the graphics memory, one controller per chip. The same microcontrollers send and receive information from GDDR6X chips embedded in the video card. The type of information that goes into graphic memory is textures, polygons and a wealth of visual information presented to the user. Usually, this information is preloaded when loading the game in order to store as much information as possible in the fastest and most accessible memory in the system for a smooth and fast experience.
GDDR6X memory is the most unconventional memory we have seen so far in the GDDR family for graphics cards and graphics cores when it comes to how it is implemented in the printed circuit board. This is because his electrical requirements are significantly devout to editions that came before him. Notice how close these graphic memories are to the graphic core. This need comes from the GDDR6X requirement to maintain maximum and uncompromising signal quality, as the placement of the chips farther from the core may result in signal failure and significant data slowdown or complete spoilage. GDDR6X memory is why RTX 3080 printed panels can be significantly smaller than third-party manufacturers like MSI do. The reason for increasing printed panels is mainly the use of advanced refrigerators, it seems. The printed board of NVIDIA This video card comes with an average human palm.
The GDDR6X memory currently in use on the RTX 3080 and RTX 3090 graphics cards is a micron result, and has a capacity of 1GB (or 8Gb) per single chip. During the year 2021 we are expected to see the maximum memory capacity double itself for all chip. Also, other memory manufacturers are expected to join the advanced graphics card usage pool, as well סמסונג, Hynix And others.
To the question of how to refrigerate such a video card, the answer is here. System engineering Cooling Is something that manufacturers like MSI know well, after decades of experience in the hardware world. The proven and working method for cooling an advanced video card is to use tubes Cooling And a significant number of aluminum fans worn on the same pipes. Also, connecting aluminum surfaces using thermal pads to the various card components is a way to transfer heat to the same aluminum fans.
The principle is relatively simple - take a number of pipes Cooling Made of copper, unite them together, press firmly, flatten and sand to obtain as flat a surface as possible in a production line. The same surface comes in direct contact with the graphic core for the purpose of direct heat transfer as much as possible from the core to the same cooling pipes. Also, there is a plate made of aluminum with thermal pads as you can see in the picture, which helps to transfer heat even from the GDDR6X chips that are attached to the graphics core.
There is a different production line dedicated to pipes Cooling Before they are brought for body assembly Cooling Such. Pipes Cooling Manufactured in various diameters and most often video cards can be found with a diameter of 6 millimeters for the little ones and 8 millimeters for the large ones. Each such pipe contains a gas or liquid that spreads rapidly as it warms up, thus driving the heat conduction along the entire pipe. These tubes are first filled with the same material, and closed by soldering. Specifically, in pipes Cooling These we also get a nickel plating, at least for the part that does not come in direct contact with the graphic core. The aluminum fans are machine-mounted on the same cooling pipes and their function is to dissipate the heat over a significantly larger surface area.
Nickel plating on top of the cooling pipes prevents oxidation of the copper in contact with the air. It can be said that this is the main reason that pipes Cooling Such get the desired coating, since it does not drive heat conduction, since the heat conduction of nickel is lower than that of copper on the order of about half.
We arrived at the component with the traffic in each system Cooling Such advanced, the fan. The function of this component is to flow cold air from the environment directly onto the aluminum fans and cause them to generate the accumulated heat into the ambient air. Here, manufacturers have a lot of freedom to experiment and see how it is possible to create something that visually looks good but also does the job.
In each generation of video cards we see a new version of fans and experimenting with a variety of methods Cooling. Specifically, MSI's TORX 4.0 has been proven here. These fans with a diameter of 90 millimeters contain a respectable amount of wings for efficient airflow in an amount of revolutions per minute that will be reasonable for the user's ear. On aerodynamics theory and what makes a quality fan for Cooling We will not discuss here, but it is important to know that there has been a gradual improvement over the years in the quality of the fans of graphic cards Advanced. Whether the engine itself, the bearing or the fan wings, you can safely say that the fans you get today on the average video card are significantly better than what you knew a few years ago.
We will end with an easy performance test (because how is it possible without), and some insights.
Before and after disassembling the video card, in order to check how high quality the thermal ointment is called MSI In the factory, a test can be performed that includes running the video card at a graphical load, while determining the percentage of fan speed. We set a speed of 50% and gave the video card about two hours to run a heavy graphics test. After this time the heat from the graphic core should spread to the entire heat sink and we reach the equilibrium. The core temperature was 66 degrees Celsius during this test with an ambient temperature of 27 degrees Celsius.
After disassembling the video card, we used an ARCTIC MX-4 third-party thermal ointment. Thermal ointment that has accompanied hardware people for many years. After reassembling the video card and applying the same thermal ointment, the graphical core temperature effort dropped to 65 ° C using the same fan speed. This indicates that MSI Uses a fairly advanced thermal ointment in her factory, and for that she deserves a commendation. Many of us see that advanced cooling graphics cards get a thermal solution with properties similar to peanut butter, and after the application of advanced ointment get a significant improvement in cooling efficiency, both due to the placement procedure itself in the factory, and due to the quality of the material.
The printed boards of a series NVIDIA The new thing is definitely a change of thinking for the hardware engineers who are working on designing and preparing those boards. The use of GDDR6X memory and a graphics core that consumes so much power leads to not simple engineering challenges, to which are added the impossible schedules of NVIDIA From the moment of giving the OK to the manufacturer until the moment of announcement and availability in stores. We know that third party manufacturers do not have much time at all.
People who know the world of hardware know that another wave of graphic cards, One engineered with slightly less than half-launch is expected to be launched in the coming months, as in any generation. Perhaps there we will get to see more advanced models of printed circuit boards and coolers such as the Lightning series of MSI Known as extraordinary. Aside from that anomaly we know in the form of random crashes to the fact table, honestly there is not much engineering to add on top of everything that has already been said about cards RTX 3080.
In addition, it is important for us to note Because we did not experience any crashes at all And included When using the MSI RTX 3080 GAMING X TRIO video card, And this phenomenon Exclusive at this stage to the situations in which it was performed The fast For core frequencies.