Have your new hardware components arrived? Renew. In the following comprehensive guide you will learn how to assemble your PC in the best and smartest way, down to the last detail
Assembling a computer specification is a matter of course when ordering a personal computer, and thanks to help from interested parties, this process is usually done easily. But everyone is talking about specifications, no one is talking about assembly. In this tutorial we will teach you how to properly assemble your PC step by step.
As many users enjoy searching for the perfect computer specifications for them, many also enjoy assembling their new computer themselves. Usually, however, this pleasure is the share of those who have the technical knowledge to do so, while other users are forced to rely on the mercy of the store, and even pay extra for it in some cases.
The process of assembling a computer is not complicated, but many prefer not to do it alone due to the risk involved, and rightly so: this process must be performed correctly and gently down to the last detail. This guide is going to teach you how to perform the process correctly and safely so that you can assemble your new computer yourself without the need for lab services. In order to give you general knowledge about all parts of the process, the guide includes technical explanations, side notes, תמונות And footage.
The assembly process must be carried out carefully and in accordance with the instructions, therefore the responsibility for the correct execution of all stages of the manual applies only to the user himself, and the HWzone site is not responsible for any damage caused by implementing the processes listed in this manual.
What will we need?
In order to carry out the installation and installation process, it is recommended that a wide and safe working environment be opened. Also, we will need auxiliary equipment and components, most of which we can find in the hardware packages. Help with photos.
The different types of screws will be provided to you with the motherboard, chassis and power supply. Most enclosures also provide handcuffs, while only some provide a warning speaker and an elongated 8-pin cable. Also, the minimum hardware composition we will need for the system to run consists of a CPU, CPU cooling, motherboard, hard drive or SSD And power supply. Of course, for PC We'll put them all into a computer case. Additional optional and basic components will be added depending on your choice: expansion cards such as graphic cards And sound and stingers.
We will start the whole process by assembling the core parts, which are the processor, the cooling and the memories, which will be performed on the motherboard even before it enters the case. Along with working on the motherboard, it is advisable to place it on a soft surface, such as the antistatic bag or the spongy surface with which it came. Please note - before making contact with the parts, we will discharge static electricity by touching the body of the case when it is grounded. Work with gloves or other means of insulation is mandatory.
Tip: It is very important to discharge static electricity from the body to avoid short circuit, and in any case it is recommended to avoid unnecessary contact with the printed boards
Assembly begins with the installation of the main processor on the motherboard, the most important and delicate process, so do it slowly and gently. Before installing, you must first locate the processor bracket on the motherboard. The bracket is positioned standard on the top of the board. In certain types of tables, the chassis may be found elsewhere.
In motherboards compatible with Intel processors the chassis is a very sensitive place, as it features a large number of very tiny pins that are able to bend completely easily: enough one wrong passage of an object across the chassis. Therefore, any contact of the hand or object other than the processor with the cradle should be avoided in any way. The Intel processor includes passive contacts following contact with the chassis. In motherboards compatible with AMD processors Reverse bracket principle: The bracket is passive, while the processors AMD Include the same active contacts - tiny and sensitive pins.
Tip: Crooked pins can manifest themselves in voltage problems, overheating and even non-communication between the CPU and the board. In mild cases of one or two penises, a tiny needle and a magnifying glass should be used to put them back in place (recommended by a specialist). In more severe cases, a replacement bracket may be required for an additional fee as the warranty does not apply to physical damage.
The bracket will usually come with a plastic lid which protects the bracket from physical damage until the installation process. The bracket handle must be released before removing it - the function of the handle is to fix an object to the bracket, in our desired case: the processor. The handle is located on the right side of the bracket. LGA2011 mounts also include an additional handle on the left side. In order to release each handle in each bracket, it must be pressed down and dragged out.
Now, in the seat Intel The frame should be lifted gently. Lifting the frame is done automatically by clicking on its lower side, which will be marked with the word PUSH (push). If there is a plastic lid that protects the bracket, remove it slowly and gently by grasping its edges. At this point we place the CPU on the bracket, but it must be done correctly: there is only one way to place the CPU on the bracket, and any other way will not fit at best and will damage the bracket or processor at worst.
The correct way to place the processor can be identified with the help of a few signs. First, the bracket and CPU corners look compatible, as there are slanted or square corners and straight corners. The width and length of the bracket also have various defects, such as a pair of teeth whose location matches the physical shape of the processor. In addition, on Intel mounts and processors a small triangle is marked in the exact same corner, usually on the bottom left, which helps to match the location of the CPU on the mount.
Refrigerate the system
Once the processor has been successfully installed, the cooling that is sitting on it should be installed. And of course, the importance of cooling is critical. As a result of the large number of heat sinks with different installation methods, this chapter will not deal extensively with the heat sink installation, but will detail the installation of a standard heat sink from Intel andAMD. Any body Cooling Another comes with a mechanism and its own assembly, and a page of instructions to be used for assembly.
Tip: For almost everyone Cooling There are several tutorial videos on YouTube - just look for the name of your cooler.
The physical installation process of all Cooling The processor must start with one first and most important step: applying a thermal ointment, which will come in a syringe. The importance of thermal ointment is undisputed and must be located between the processor and the cooler in order to help conduct heat from the processor. The correct way to apply thermal ointment is to place a very small amount in the middle. Spreading a large amount on the processor is not recommended at all and will even detract from the cooling capabilities.
In the standard Intel andAMD, And as in many other holes the thermal paste is already smeared in the right place, so all that remains is to install the heat sink on the processor. In all cases, the ointment will extend to the length and width of the processor in the correct manner.
Tip: The thermal ointment will dry easily over time, so it is highly recommended to renew the ointment at least once every two years. The mehadrin will even renew once a year.
In the standard cooling of Intel processors the cooling includes four legs in the corners that are caught in round slots that are on the motherboard and surround the bracket. There are heads on the legs - each leg must be pressed in the direction of the hole that suits it. Refrigerated AMD There is a bridge that is caught on both sides on the chassis by manual action. When it is taken on both, pull the knob to the opposite side, which will determine the cooling on the bracket.
After installing Cooling It or all Cooling Other, the fan cable must be connected to the active 3 or 4 connector, which can be found on the motherboard in different locations, one of which is usually near the processor cradle for convenience. Use the image and the instruction manual to understand where such connections exist on the board. The 3 cable can be connected to the 4 pin socket.
Now, we come to the part where we talk about the middle ground: memories. The process is not complicated, but it also has its own rules that must not be ignored. First, we locate the memory slots on the motherboard, which are standard to the right of the CPU cradle, and even additional slots to the left of it on motherboards with X79 and X99 chipsets. In order to insert the memories into the slots, the clamps at the edges must be pulled in the opposite direction to the end.
Before physically stamping the memories on the salutes, one must understand the order in which they are supposed to sit in order to act or accept multi-channel action. The order is usually specified in the parent's instruction manual, but usually in order to place a pair Memories For more than one pair of salots, they should be placed in the second and fourth slats (left to right) or the first and third.
In order to insert the memories, note that they are that the division in the slot layout corresponds to the division on the memory contacts, since if you placed the memory upside down it physically did not sit in its place. As long as the memory is seated correctly it will go into the slot, and at this point force must be applied and the memory pressed down on both sides at the same time (or on one side in some of the boards). As soon as it reaches the end, the slot grippers will automatically attach to the memory and catch it.
Note that the memories are compatible with the motherboard, as DDR3 memories for example will not be physically compatible with the slot of memories DDR4 And vice versa. Also, Extreme memories come with Cooling Extremely high may collide with my body Cooling So it is important to combine memories and body Cooling appropriate.
Into the case
At this point the processor and memory are sitting on the motherboard, and it is time to insert the motherboard into the chassis. To do this, open the case doors first and locate where the board is supposed to sit. In standard cases the motherboard sits on the left side of the case and extends to the right or to the end, depending on the size of the case. In packages of special types such as HTPC The position may change completely: the instruction booklet that comes with the case must be used.
In order to put the board on the case in place, insulating screws must be used. The insulation screws are lifting screws into which the screw thread of the board is made, in order to insulate the board from contact with the body of the case and to prevent it from falling short. The insulation screws have different places in the case according to the size of the motherboard. Use the chassis instruction booklet or look to understand where the insulation screws are located compared to the size of the board. Screw the insulation screws into place by covering them with a Phillips screwdriver adapter, and do so tightly until they are caught in place.
Tip: The function of insulation screws is to prevent short circuit by isolating the contact between the electrical parts and the chassis body itself. Their use is necessary and can not be chosen
Before screwing the motherboard onto the insulation screws, the rear connection chassis must be inserted first. Attach it from the inside, but note that the chassis is inverted correctly so that the connection holes are the same as those on the motherboard. Apply force in the corners until the chassis catches on all of them. Now carefully place the motherboard on the insulation screws and focus earlier on inserting it through the connections in the chassis. The screw holes of the board will intersect with the insulation screws when finished.
Put electricity into the system
At this point we will install the power supply and put electricity into the system. It includes voltage connections to the motherboard with the help of which it routes the voltage to all the parts and additional cables to other components. The location of its installation may vary from case to case, so the case instruction manual must be used. The standard location is at the bottom of the case, or at the top in slightly older cases.
It can be installed in two ways: one when it is facing down and one when it is facing up. Decide which is the most efficient way in your case, considering where the power supply's fan draws the air, so if it is facing downwards in cases standing on a pair of high legs it will be able to pump air from below - this is usually the standard.
Place the power supply gently in place with the side of the power connector and the power switch facing the back of the chassis and fitting the screw holes in the chassis. If the power supply is installed above, hold it until it is caught by threading. Use the Phillips screws to screw it and grasp it on the body of the case.
At this point we will also start dealing with cabling: so that the thick and bundled power cables do not interfere with working with the hardware, pass them out through the back of the case, and insert the desired cable through the case slots, taking up as little space inside the case and more behind - we will use handcuffs Then in order to clean the clutter from behind. In large cases, the 8-pin cable may be too short to carry it in the back, so use an 8-pin extension cable if available.
Now connect to the motherboard the most basic cables for the power supply: the 24 pin cable, and the 8 pin cable. Here, too, the socket location may vary from board to board, so use the chart in the instruction manual, but the standard position is on the right side of the 24 pin, and on the top left for the 8 pins.
Tip: In some motherboards, especially the simple or minimal ones, the 8-pin connection is only 4-pin. Use only one 4-pin braid available in the power supply as well.
The case meets the board
We will now focus on the chassis connections to the motherboard. These are connections that belong to the front panel of buttons and connections in the chassis, as well as to its fans. Let's start with the basics - the main panel connections. These connections include four components: the power button, the power button, the power indicator light, and the hard disk indicator light. The main panel connections are active (pins) and sit together on the motherboard when they are deployed together (use the board booklet to locate them).
The cables are recognizable by their tiny size and originate from the front panel area of the case and are marked with colors and abbreviated names - change these names, in order to understand where each cable goes in the above layout. You can usually use a small diagram on the motherboard itself. If you have difficulty, help with the booklet to understand where each cable is located, here too be sure to move the cables behind the case to give it a cable-free appearance.
Tip: The operation of the shutdown and restart buttons is a shortening of these contacts on the motherboard for operation. You can do the same without connections by prolonged contact with a screwdriver on the buttons on the motherboard to make sure everything is working at this point
Other connections that we connect are:USB. You can find such a pair for USB2 - on the motherboard these will be marked as USB_1, USB_2. Also, the USB3 cable looks different and contains a different socket. They are followed by audio and microphone cables (AC97 or HD Audio, your choice) and eSATA connections (each eSATA connection will include a standard SATA cable which we will expand on later). Needless to say, the board booklet needs to be used to locate these, yes?
A little air in the system
Before we connect the fans, let's start with the warning speaker, which is speaker A microscope that sits on a 4-2 pin 3-pin cable and its job is to beep in a certain way (similar to Morse code) to provide information about the POST process. This speaker is optional but highly recommended, as without it if a proper POST process has not been performed it is not possible to understand what the problem is. Usually its connection is near the connections of the front panel - in the operating manual of the motherboard it is called "SPEAKER" or "header speaker".
Connecting the fans in the case can be done in two ways: In the first and more common way, the ventilators will connect directly to the power supply using the Molex cables or directly to the motherboard using an 3 or 4 cable (for the same type of connection to which it connects) Cooling CPU). Most chassis fans will come with a Molex connection only, but LED fans will come with a 3 or 4 pin connection in addition.
Tip: The advantage of connecting the fans to the motherboard over connecting to the supplier is the ability to control their speed using theBIOS Or third-party software in the operating system and monitor their rotational speed.
Connect the fans in the way you prefer, as long as you maintain the correct binding trend. In the case that fans connect to the motherboard itself is difficult to impossible to move them behind, so try to arrange them as much as possible on the board and transfer them to the closest connection. The length of the cables can be diluted with a cuff.
Tickets for gentlemen, tickets
The system is standing, now all that is left is to connect the expansion cards and drives of sorts. Let's start with the expansion cards: the expansion cards are video cards, sound cards, network cards, cards TV And more. For systems that do not have expansion cards but use a built-in video card in the motherboard or processor, the next part may be irrelevant, so you can skip it directly to the drive setup.
The location of the expansion cards is naturally on the left side of the processor. The expansion cards sit on the stack of slots on the side that are on the connections PCI-Express (See the following note for more details), PCI connections and if your system is really old then then the AGP connections that will replace the USB connectionsPCI-Express.
PCI-Express connections are currently used for all types of expansion cards. They come at different speeds and especially in different sizes. graphic cards Will be technically and physically compatible with full-size PCI-Express slots (16x). PCI slots are now used in older or simpler boards, mainly for sound cards, Network And television.
Before moving on to the installation itself, we will focus on the expansion slots on the chassis, which are the slots through which the left part of the expansion card exits and enables its connection from behind. These slots come covered with computer casings: in some cases the removal of the chassis that blocks them is irreversible, while the rest of these cases are caught by screws. Also, this area is bolted to the expansion card itself in order to catch it in a stable manner.
Install the expansion cards on their correct slots, making sure they sit in their seats all the way. At this point, use the expansion slots to secure them with bolts. For many modern video cards, an additional expansion slot is required below, as well as an additional screw for it.
Modern video cards, and even some other expansion cards, must be connected directly to the power supply. graphic cards Connect to the power supply using 4-pin or 8-pin cables (on some cards both together). Use the picture and the manual of the video card to understand where to connect these, with the default location being at the left end of the card. Also, try moving the cables behind. If your power supply does not contain such 8 or 4 pin connections, you can use a 4-pin and 8-pin Molecs adapter that will usually come in the package of any modern video card.
Tip: Another video card that should create an array SLI Or CrossFire is recommended to place on the slot-PCI-Express The next one running at X16 (use the instruction manual of the board), and bridge them through the mediator that comes with them. The bridging salutation is on the left side of the video card.
We're almost done: drives
The drives are on hard disks (3.5 "), drives SSD (2.5 "), burners (5.25") and if their system is really old, or you have trouble separating - then also a Folppy drive (3.5 "). By default all drives are located on the right side of the case when viewed from the inside, but there are Enclosures Different in their structure. Each case has a different patent to fix the drives in place - help in the case manual of the case. If there is none - a sign that the principle is simple, and fixing the drives is all done by "threading" and threading on the right side.
These will usually be drawers for the hard disks (when one or all of them are supported for the 2.5 "device) and a handle for catching burners, with the connection area of the hard drives and drivesSSD Turns to the back of the case. Place for Floppy drives are the same as those of burners, if present in the package.
We will start the assembly process from the hard drives and SSDs: Once placed correctly for your chassis, their connection will be made from the drive using SATA cables (one for DATA type, and one for power). In older systems, IDE and Molex cable. The DATA type SATA cables are connected directly from the motherboard, and those from the direct voltage type provide the power. SATA-DATA cables will come with the motherboard.
The SATA or IDE connections can be found on the board in different places, but the default location is on the right side of the board, in the middle or down. Connect these cables in the same line of maintaining a clean appearance - these cables can pass without any problem behind the chassis, so it is easy to arrange them and maintain a clean appearance with them.
Tip: Not enough SATA power cables? Use a Molex adapter. These adapters exist in stores at fairly cheap prices.
Connecting 5.25 "drives (burners) will be done in exactly the same way - using SATA cables. These drives should be threaded from the outside of the case to the inside, after removing the panel that hides it at the front of the case. In many cases the removal process is different and contains a certain patent. To catch and remove them from the inside, connect the cables while continuing to maintain a clean appearance, and secure the drive using the correct patent for your case.
At this point we were actually done with the installation, but because we learned in this tutorial how to make a proper cabling we can not just close the door of the case because of a whole bush of cables in the back - do not worry, it's just a sign that you did everything right. Using handcuffs, attach the cables to the chassis. This part includes full clamps on which the cuffs can be caught along with the attached cables. Do this patiently, slowly, until the back case door closes unobstructed.
Tip: Rotate in places where you tighten the cables with the handcuffs so as not to create too thick a braid that will only interfere with closing the door. There is usually enough room and catch to fill the whole area.
Before closing the left door of the case as well, we will connect the system to the electricity for the first time to make sure that everything works and is connected properly. In order for the system to go through POST (initial operating process), it needs a processor, a board, זיכרון And a video card (external or built-in) is properly installed and connected.
A normal POST is usually indicated by one short beep from the system speaker. If you hear repeated beeps, or a long beep and the like, You can use the following article In order to monitor the type of problem and try to solve it and understand what was not correctly connected. If you do not have speaker Warning, the way to see if a POST is done properly is to connect the computer to the monitor. If not - highly recommended speaker Warning, it is sold in stores at the price of one digit.
If everything is OK, the assembly has passed successfully and you can close the cabinet door. Remember that the system requires constant maintenance, so once every few months it is recommended to clean dust from the chassis, ventilators and coolers, as well as apply a new thermal ointment - actions that sometimes require the dismantling of several of the parts. Resumed!